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Border spectra
If you look through a prism at a bright rectangular form surrounded by a black background, images of the rectangle appear in in two differnet places.
Fig. 1 shows a photo with the image of the rectangular area on top and two different images below. These two images appear together in the prism. One image appears mirrored around the longitudinal axis (operation m), the second image does not appear mirrored, but with colored border spectra (operation b): red/yellow at the top and blue/turquoise at the bottom.

In Fig. 2  these two images are shown next to each other in the 2nd line. These two images were then viewed through a second prism, which was placed at a distance parallel to the first prism. The angle of the first prism remained unchanged. The distance and angle of the second prism were each adjusted in a such way, that operation m was followed by operation b and vice versa. The results are shown in the third line of Fig 2, which are amazing. It makes a big difference whether you apply operation m first and then operation b or vice versa. In mathematical terms this would mean that multiplying m times b produces something different than multiplying b times m. But the mathematical rule 
m x b  =   b x m  applies to numbers and things, not to processes. The result of this experiment shows that light cannot be viewed as being things (photons like small balls), but must be looked at as processes. This is in accord with Quantum physics, where photons are interpreted as processes.

I developed a graphic model, the so-called quantum model, which shows light as process. (see page
light). To understand light it is also necessary to include processes in the eye and brain and mental processes of percieving*.
(see my video:
Light, Quantum Physics and Buddhism).



 

In another experiment, the prism was placed in such a way that the arrangement of the images are changed.

Fig. 3 shows the the same arrangement as in the photo in Fig. 1:
above - without a prism
below - mirrored (operation m)
below - not mirrored but with colored border spectra (operation b):
red/yellow at the top and blue/turquoise at the bottom.
The two images of the rectangular form are located here below the place of the original form.

FIG. 4 shows a fundamentally new arrangement of the images.
below - without a prism
above - mirrored (operation m)
top - not mirrored but with colored border spectra (operation b):
blue/turquoise at the top and red/yellow at the bottom.
Compared to Fig. 3  the two images of the rectangular form are located here above the form and the colours of the bordeer spectra appeared swapped.

In both experiments you can touch the bright original image. The two additional images appear as offset images in the prism and cannot be touched. When moving the two images, both the shape of the bright rectangle and the surrounding black space shift, because shape and space are always inextricably linked. The borders of the rectangular form are the dividing lines between form and space. The light-dark contrast at these borders is decisive for the formation of colored border spectra. However, the color spectra only appear on the horizontal and not on the vertical edges, i.e. only on the borders that have an opposite border in the direction of the displacement of the respective image.
This law of optics was already formulated by Goethe in his treatise “Theory of Colours”. With this law, Goethe presented a new explanation of how colored spectra appear and thus questioned the current Newtonian explanation using so-called “light rays”.
(see further infos in
spectra and light rays).

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Fig. 1

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Fig. 3

m_x_b-eu-neu-400

Fig. 2

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Fig. 4

* In an extensive study, Prof. Ivo Kohler at the University of Innsbruck examined these processes of perception more closely. The test subject wore glasses with prisms for 10 days without interruption, with which they experienced their everyday world turned upside down. The floor was up now and the sky was down. At first they could not find their way around in everyday life without others help. But then something unexpected happened. Suddenly the perception changed quite spontaneously. As usual, the sky was up again and the earth was down again, although the subject continued to wear the prism-glasses. When the test person then took off the glasses after 10 days, the perception turned again, i.e. the world was now upside down without the prism-glasses. After a few minutes, however, the picture swapped again quite spontaneously, so that the test subject saw the world again as before they wear the glasses. These investigations with prism-glasses are documented in two videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5mjU3_vuvM – Living In A Reversed World, video english
https://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/awz/archiv/film-fotoarchiv/theodor-erismann/. video german
Prof. Kohler's investigations make clear that swapping up and down or right and left are active and creative processes. It is therefore essential to consider the process of perception, if we want to say something essential about colours, shapes and light.